1. synonym: a word that has a similar meaning as another word. (couch and sofa)

ex.: Which word is a synonym for the term depicting as it is used in this passage?

2. antonym: a word that has a different meaning from another word (placid and chaotic)

ex.: Which word is antonym for the term intricate?

3. conflict: a struggle or problem between opposing forces or powers

a. internal conflict: problem is within the character (greed, pride, selfish or mean)

b. external conflict: problem with another character or outside force ( storms, discrimination and poverty)

ex.: The main conflict in this selection is?

4. opinion: a belief that may or may not be true; an opinion is neither right or wrong. Cannot be proven

ex.: Which is an opinion expressed in this selection?

5. except: not included; to leave out ( Everyone attended the press conference except the PR manager.)

ex.: Guide dogs have to be healthy and strong for all of the following reasons, except which one?

6. most likely: very likely to happen; no doubt; probable

ex.: When would a guide dog be most likely to practice intelligent disobedience?

7. conclusion: result or outcome; a judgment or decision; the ending

ex.: What conclusion is best supported by information in the selection?

8. narrator: the person who is telling the story.

a. first-person point of view: The narrator takes part in the story or the action within the story. Uses keywords like: I, we, me or us.

b. Third-person point of view: The narrator does not take part in the story. Use keywords like: they, he, she or them

ex.: How are Captain Nemo and the narrator alike?

9. tone: the attitude of the narrator, speaker or writer by using certain words. (sad, happy, nervous, gloomy, comical, humorous or serious)

ex.: Which of the following words best describes the tone of the selection?

10. excerpt: a passage taken from a longer work

ex.: Which detail from this excerpt would most likely help the reader understand that this novel is a work of science fiction?

11. main: most important; major; key; central; highest

ex.: What is the main purpose of this poem?

12. speaker: the person who is telling the story ( speaker is used with poems)

ex.: Who is the speaker in the poem?

13. audience: listeners; viewers; spectators

ex.: To which audience do you think Blader Bob most appeals?

14. appeal: to have influence over; interesting; to attract

ex.: To which audience do you think Blader Bob most appeals?

15. differ: different; not alike

ex.: How does the narrator differ from Captain Nemo?

16. illustrate: to show; demonstrate; to point out

ex.: Which quotation from the selection best illustrates why this area of the Pacific Ocean is called the Ring of Fire?

17. significance: importance; impact

ex.: What is the main significance of a patron signing the registration form?

18. ironic: The use of words to express something different from and often opposite to their literal meaning. (The Bald Eagle is not really bald)

ex.: What is most ironic about Mary’s final comment?

19. point of view:

ex: From whose point of view is the selection told?

20. figurative language: uses "figures of speech" - a way of saying something other than the literal meaning of the words.

a. Simile: A figure of speech in which a comparison is expressed by the specific use of a word or phrase such as: like or as

ex.: As clear as crystal.
As cold as ice.

b. Personification: A type of metaphor in which distinct human qualities, e.g., honesty, emotion, volition, etc., are attributed to an animal, object or idea

ex.: The wind yells while blowing.
The flowers were crying for my attention.
The sun was playing hide and seek, amidst the clouds.
The tv sprang to life.

c. Hyperbole: A bold, deliberate overstatement not intended to be taken literally, it is used as a means of emphasizing the truth of a statement.

ex. I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse!

ex.: I had so much homework, I needed a pickup truck to carry all my books home!
d. Metaphor: A metaphor is the expression of an understanding of one concept in terms of another concept, where there is some similarity or correlation between the two.
The following sentences illustrate how the metaphorical understanding of anger-as-fire is expressed:
· Your insincere apology just added fuel to the fire.
· After the argument, Dave was smoldering for days.
· Boy, am I burned up!
e. Onomatopoeia: a word whose sounds seem to duplicate the sounds they describe--hiss, buzz, bang, murmur, meow, growl.
f. Alliteration: the repetition of the same sound at the beginning of a word, such as the repetition of b sounds
ex.: In stanza 2, the poet uses personification to describe the sea. This figurative language compares the sea to what?

21. imply: to express or state indirectly; a logical consequence

ex.: What does the speaker imply when he says, “Spring is the mischief in me”?

22. least: smallest amount; not very important

ex.: Which of the following probably had the least effect on Jerry’s success?